Steps Of Planting A Guava Tree
Guava trees are considerably easier to grow than you might imagine, and if done correctly, they can produce fruit with even more Vitamin C than oranges. Aside from shielding it from the elements, the tree becomes rather self-sufficient after it matures.
Guavas can be produced from seed or root cuttings, but finding a cultivar from a nursery is the best option for a home gardener. In this article, I’ll share step by steps that will help you to plant guava trees successfully.
Guavas were in use in Peru around 800 BCE, according to archeological data. They were most likely domesticated in Peru, but they swiftly spread throughout South and Central America. They had expanded as far north as Mexico by around 200 BCE, and from there to the Caribbean islands (Davidson).
Europeans first saw the guava in what is now Haiti, where it was known as guayavu. This term (guayaba in Spanish) went over the world with the fruit, thanks to Portuguese and Spanish traders. It was highly established in India, Southeast Asia, and the Pacific Islands by the 17th century (Davidson) (Morton).
Guava is now mostly produced in Brazil and Hawaii. It's become a precious commodity that's traded all around the world. Columbia and India are two more big producers (Morton).
Nutrition Facts Of Guava
The USDA provides the following nutrition information for (165g) 1 cup of guava.
- Calories: 112
- Fat: 1.6g
- Sodium: 3.3mg
- Carbohydrates: 23.6g
- Fiber: 8.9g
- Sugars: 14.7g
- Protein: 4.2g
- Potassium: 417 mg
- Vitamin C: 228.3 mg
Health Benefits Of Guava
Helps To Build Immunity
Guavas are high in vitamin C, with nearly four times the amount of vitamin C found in oranges. Vitamin C boosts your immune system and protects you from common diseases by eliminating bacteria and viruses.
Guava also improves iron absorption, which helps to maintain your body's immunity and make you stronger.
Reduce Blood Sugar Levels
Guava has been shown to help with blood sugar control in some studies.
Guava leaf extract improved blood sugar levels, long-term blood sugar control, and insulin resistance in several test-tube and animal experiments.
This is great news for anyone who has diabetes or is at risk of developing it.
A few human studies have also yielded impressive effects.
Drinking guava leaf tea after a meal was found to reduce blood sugar levels in 19 participants in one research. The effects were said to last up to two hours.
Another study indicated that drinking guava leaf tea decreased blood sugar levels after a meal by more than 10% in 20 patients with type 2 diabetes.
Lowers Risk of Cancer
“Powerful antioxidants including lycopene, quercetin, vitamin C, and other polyphenols neutralize free radicals in the body, limiting cancer cell multiplication.” “Guava fruit has been shown to be useful in reducing prostate cancer risk and suppressing the production of breast cancer cells since it is high in lycopene,” says Dr. Manoj K. Ahuja.
Help During Pregnancy
Guava is frequently suggested for pregnant women because it is high in folic acid and Vitamin B-9, which aids in the development of the baby's nervous system and protects the infant from neurological diseases.
The B-vitamin in the apple helps your body build DNA and genetic material for the fetus by allowing cells to proliferate. As a result, guava would be an excellent addition to your pregnant diet.
Reduce Blood Pressure
Guava leaf extract may aid in the reduction of high blood pressure.
In rat tissues, the extract demonstrated an antihypertensive impact in a 2016 test tube research, indicating that it may have the capacity to lower blood pressure.
This effect could be related to the antioxidant capabilities of the leaf extract. Antioxidants can assist to reduce blood pressure by expanding blood vessels.
However, further research is needed to discover whether guava leaf extract can help those with high blood pressure.
Improve Skin Health
If you're one of the many people who want to avoid fine lines and wrinkles on their faces, guava is the fruit to eat.
Guava is high in antioxidants including carotene and lycopene, as well as vitamins A and C, which protect the skin from a variety of skin problems.
Guava consumption restores skin brightness and freshness, preventing problems such as hyperpigmentation, dark circles, redness, and acne. Furthermore, the fruit aids in the toning and tightening of facial muscles, leaving your skin looking young and supple.
Improves Eye Health
Guava, like carrots, is well-known for improving visual health. Because vitamin A is present, it not only prevents but also aids in the improvement of eyesight. It also protects against the development of cataracts and macular degeneration.
Boost Heart Health
Guavas can aid heart health in a variety of ways.
Many scientists believe that guava leaves' high quantities of antioxidants and vitamins can help protect your heart from free radical damage.
Guavas' greater potassium and soluble fiber content are thought to contribute to better heart health.
Guava leaf extract has also been related to reduced blood pressure, a reduction in “bad” LDL cholesterol, and an increase in “good” HDL cholesterol.
Because high blood pressure and high LDL cholesterol levels are connected to an increased risk of heart disease and stroke, guava leaf extract could provide significant advantages.
Furthermore, the fruit may be beneficial to heart health.
Prevent Cough And Cold
Guava contains one of the greatest concentrations of vitamin C and iron among fruits, both of which have been shown to help prevent colds and viral infections. The juice of raw and immature guavas, as well as a decoction of guava leaves, can help relieve cough and cold symptoms by removing mucus and disinfecting the respiratory tract, throat, and lungs.
Varieties Of Guava
Most of the guava cultivars described here will grow in most home gardens; depending on the climate and location, most of these cultivars will not grow taller than 10 to 15 feet.
1. Apple Guava
This is the most commonly eaten fresh guava. It bears gorgeous white fruit that develops a light yellow colour as it ripens.
2. Strawberry Guava
Delicious guava with a strawberry flavour. This is a great fruit to eat right from the tree.
3. Tropical Guava
It is a yellow-skinned fruit with soft white flesh. Tropical emits a pleasant scent that spreads throughout your garden.
4. Red Malaysian
This is a lovely tree with crimson fruit and somewhat red leaves. The blossoms are a vibrant pink colour.
5. Mexican Cream
Also known as ‘Tropical Yellow,' this cultivar boasts a sweet, soft flesh that is ideal for pastries. This guava tree is more erect than other guava trees.
6. Lemon Guava
The skin and flesh of this type are both yellow, with a pronounced lemon flavour. It's a tiny tree, therefore it's ideal if you have limited room.
7. Guava Pineapple
This variety has larger fruit that ripens in the late fall. This is a variety that I favour, and it works nicely.
This fruit is remarkable in that it is the only yellow-fleshed guava cultivar. It's not easy to come by right now, but if you do, you'll be rewarded with enormous golden fruits with a firm texture.
Steps Of Planting Guava Tree
1. Climate and Zones
Guava can be cultivated in both humid and dry settings; the ideal temperature for growing guava is between 68 and 82 degrees Fahrenheit.
USDA zones 9 through 12 are suitable for growing guava. Guava should be protected from frost or cold weather in zones 9a and 8b. Frost will harm guava; it may recover from temperatures as low as 29°F, but it will most likely lose all of its leaves.
Guava should be grown in full sun, however, in desert areas, it should be grown in partial shade or protected from the midday sun. Guavas should be planted in compost-rich, well-drained soil.
Guavas grow best in soil with a pH of 4.5 to 9.4; a neutral pH of 6.0 to 7.0 is ideal. It is not a good idea to plant guava in low regions where cold air and cross can settle.
Guava seeds can last for a long time if stored properly. Before planting, soak the seeds in warm water for at least 24 hours, though you can leave them in the water for up to a week if necessary. Seeds should be placed in warm, moist soil and kept damp until they germinate. If you only have one type of guava, this is the most reliable form of propagation. Cuttings are the greatest way to grow multiple varieties.
Propagation using root cuttings is the next step. Cut a section of root at least 5″ long from the tree, at least 2-3 feet away. Keep it moist by placing it in warm, damp soil. Within 3-4 weeks, new shoots should begin to emerge.
Cuttings from branches that are half-hard can also be rooted. Before planting, remove a ring of bark from the cutting's base and add rooting hormone. It's also a good idea to keep these moist and warm.
Guava grows well in a wide range of soils with adequate internal and external drainage. This simply refers to a soil that allows water to easily move through it. Dig a 1 foot (0.30 m) hole and fill it with water to check for this type of soil. It's good soil if the water evaporates in a matter of minutes. If it continues to sit, you'll have to look for a new place.
Shallow soil and compacted, stratified dirt should be avoided. It will be difficult for your roots to stretch as a result of this. If your soil is hard and dense, compost might assist it to reach the ideal conditions. Work the mixture into the soil to a depth of 2 feet (0.61 m).
While you’ll need to make sure your tree has full sun and another tree for pollination purposes, you’ll also need to keep them separate. Guavas should be placed at least 10 meters (33 feet) apart when possible but can be as close as 5 meters if necessary.
Because trees demand full sun, place them in a sunny, well-lit spot. Provide a place that is at least somewhat protected from wind if possible, whether by fencing or another windbreak. Your tiny guava tree will require that protection in order to grow, and older trees can be vulnerable to cold winds as well. Guavas can be grown in cordons as espalier trees. Other plants should not be planted beneath them because exudates from the tree's root system kill weeds and other plants at the tree's base.
While your guava will tolerate some drought once it has established itself, this is not the case when it is young. During their first year of growth, young trees should be watered every other day, except during the winter months when temperatures are cooler and the tree is dormant.
Because your guava is shallow-rooted, the majority of its hydration will come from the top layers of soil. Because the upper layer of the soil dries up faster than the deeper soil, mulch can assist keep moisture from evaporating as quickly. By burying a soaker hose beneath the mulch, you may water at a gentle drip without harming the root system.
Even elder trees may require a little increase in irrigation during fruit production. Before watering, check the soil beneath the mulch for moisture. For established, mature trees, once to twice a week is usually sufficient.
If you do guava planting in a container. Every spring, repot your young guava into a larger pot. Pruning the plant in the early summer will keep it smaller, improving the possibilities of fruit production.
- Guavas are primarily self-fertile. When cross-pollinated with another cultivar, some cultivars may produce more fruit.
- Guavas bloom all year, but the best time to see them is when the weather starts to warm up in the spring.
- Guavas are pollinated mostly by honeybees.
During the growing season, fertilize regularly with a balanced complete fertilizer for the first year of growth. Because the tree will be dormant from November to January, fertilizing will be unnecessary. These trees want more magnesium and iron in their food, so check the label of your fertilizer to see whether it contains any. It's best to use a slow-release fertilizer like 5-5-5 or 6-6-6.
If you want to promote optimal fruit development after pollination, you can slightly increase the potassium content, although it's not necessary if you're consistent with the application.
Once your guava tree has established itself and has completed its first year, increase the amount of fertilizer per feeding but reduce the frequency to every other month. Slow-release blends, particularly granular kinds, are still favoured. Distribute it evenly across the root zone of the soil. If you choose, you can work it into the soil's surface.
When does guava get ripe? Guava fruit ripens in the second to fourth year. When the guava fruit is full-sized and slightly mushy and aromatic, it's time to pick it. It can, however, be harvested before it reaches full ripeness because it will continue to ripen even after it has been harvested.
If you're picking fruit early, choose fruits that are of a good size and leave the smaller ones to grow. Because most guava fruit lightens in colour as it ripens, early harvests should be light green in colour and slightly firmer in texture. Put your guavas in a paper bag alongside an apple or banana, since the ethylene released by the banana or apple can help your fruit develop faster. When plucking, avoid yanking on the tree to avoid damaging the branches. Instead, slice through the wood above the fruits with a disinfected pair of pruning shears. This safeguards your product as well as your tree.
Guava fruit that is ripe can be stored in the refrigerator for 5-7 days. Green fruit can be stored in the refrigerator for up to three weeks, but it should be checked frequently to remove completely matured fruit.
Scoop out the soft interior flesh of the apples and compost the rind to keep them fresh for longer. After that, the meat can be frozen or canned as jelly or jam. It's also possible to make guava syrup. It's also possible to dehydrate it as a pulp on a drying sheet and preserve it that way.
- Guava Wilt Disease,
- Stylar End Rot, and
are all illnesses to watch out for.
Wilting and yellowing or bronzing of the leaves, evident sagging, and early fruit shedding are all indications of guava wilt disease. There is no cure for this, however large nitrogen doses after fruiting and root protection can help to prevent it.
Only the fruit of the tree is affected by Stylar End Rot, which turns it brown or black. Although infected fruit cannot be salvaged, the rest of your crop can be saved with a fungicidal spray.
Anthracnose kills young shoots quickly, but leaves the fruit and leaves intact. It also creates black lesions on the fruit and foliage. This is a fungal infection, similar to Stylar End Rot, and fruits that are not damaged can be salvaged with a fungicidal spray.
I hope the steps of planting a guava tree will be helpful for you. If you have any queries or encounter any difficulties, please comment here.
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